Even if I believe that beauty is more than the charm of a lovely face, the seductive grace of a Mapplethorpe photograph, the symmetry of the sonata form, the tight construction of a sonnet, even if it is, in the most general terms, aesthetic value, I am not spared. In either case, beauty disappears. It is either the seductive mask of evil or the attractive face of goodness. But is beauty anything on its own?
A pure version of either of these positions seems implausible, for reasons we will examine, and many attempts have been made to split Plato on beauty essay difference or incorporate insights of both subjectivist and objectivist accounts. Nevertheless, that beauty is subjective was also a commonplace from the time of the sophists.
Beauty is no quality in things themselves: It exists merely in the mind which contemplates them; and each mind perceives a different beauty. One person may even perceive deformity, where another is sensible of beauty; and every individual ought to acquiesce in his own sentiment, without pretending to regulate those of others.
The judgment of taste is therefore not a judgment of cognition, and is consequently not logical but aesthetical, by which we understand that whose determining ground can be no other than subjective. Every reference of representations, even that of sensations, may be objective and then it signifies the real [element] of an empirical representationsave only the reference to the feeling of pleasure and pain, by which nothing in the object is signified, but through which there is a feeling in the subject as it is affected by the representation.
Kantsection 1 However, if beauty is entirely subjective—that is, if anything that anyone holds to be or experiences as beautiful is beautiful as James Kirwan, for example, asserts —then it seems that the word has no meaning, or that we are not communicating anything when we call something beautiful except perhaps an approving personal attitude.
In addition, though different persons can of course differ in particular judgments, it is also obvious that our judgments coincide to a remarkable extent: And it is possible actually to disagree and argue about whether something is beautiful, or to try to show someone that something is beautiful, or learn from someone else why it is.
On the other hand, it seems senseless to say that beauty has no connection to subjective response or that it is entirely objective. That would seem to entail, for example, that a world with no perceivers could be beautiful or ugly, or perhaps that beauty could be detected by scientific instruments.
All plausible accounts of beauty connect it to a pleasurable or profound or loving response, even if they do not locate beauty purely in the eye of the beholder. Until the eighteenth century, most philosophical accounts of beauty treated it as an objective quality: In De Veritate Religione, Augustine asks explicitly whether things are beautiful because they give delight, or whether they give delight because they are beautiful; he emphatically opts for the second Augustine, We hold that all the loveliness of this world comes by communion in Ideal-Form.
All shapelessness whose kind admits of pattern and form, as long as it remains outside of Reason and Idea, is ugly from that very isolation from the Divine-Thought.
And this is the Absolute Ugly: But where the Ideal-Form has entered, it has grouped and coordinated what from a diversity of parts was to become a unity: Plotinus, 22 [Ennead I, 6] In this account, beauty is at least as objective as any other concept, or indeed takes on a certain ontological priority as more real than particular Forms: Though Plato and Aristotle disagree on what beauty is, they both regard it as objective in the sense that it is not localized in the response of the beholder.
Nevertheless, it is conventional in ancient treatments of the topic also to pay tribute to the pleasures of beauty, often described in quite ecstatic terms, as in Plotinus: At latest by the eighteenth century, however, and particularly in the British Isles, beauty was associated with pleasure in a somewhat different way: Without perceivers of a certain sort, there would be no colors.
One argument for this was the variation in color experiences between people.
For example, some people are color-blind, and to a person with jaundice much of the world takes on a yellow cast. In addition, the same object is perceived as having different colors by the same the person under different conditions: Such variations are conspicuous in experiences of beauty as well.
Nevertheless, eighteenth-century philosophers such as Hume and Kant perceived that something important was lost when beauty was treated merely as a subjective state. They saw, for example, that controversies often arise about the beauty of particular things, such as works of art and literature, and that in such controversies, reasons can sometimes be given and will sometimes be found convincing.
They saw, as well, that if beauty is completely relative to individual experiencers, it ceases to be a paramount value, or even recognizable as a value at all across persons or societies.Aestheticism is presently defined by the Encyclopedia Britannica as “intended to designate a scientific doctrine or account of beauty, in nature and art, and for the enjoyment and originating beauty .
In his compact essay, not only does he display an in-depth understanding of complex perspectives on justice put forth by the protagonist Socrates, he deftly explains how Plato has artfully made rude objections by a seemingly minor character early in the dialogue function as a structuring device for nearly all the important ideas examined.
Beauty definition essay This essay defines beauty and its influences when it comes to sexual attraction between humans.
This essay focuses on beauty in human terms and takes no account of how this may work in the rest of the animal kingdom. Beauty is genetic. Free Plato Symposium papers, essays, and research papers.
My Account. Your search returned over essays Beauty and Love in the Republic of Plato - He claims that any object’s beauty is determined by whether it is shaped like the type of the thing that object is.
It is referred to by Plotinus as ‘formedness’. It is worth noting that the lead essay by Paul Guyer argues that 18th-century writers on beauty did not hold any concepts incompatible with this approach. Hofstadter, A., and R.
Kuhns, eds. Philosophies of Art and Beauty: Selected Readings in Aesthetics from Plato to Heidegger. What is Beauty? Words | 5 Pages. According to Oxford Dictionary, beauty is defined as “a combination of qualities, such as shape, color, or form that pleases the aesthetic senses, esp.