The boxer rebellion essay

Another small map Throughout the nineteenth century, China's emperors had watched as foreigners encroached further and further upon their land.

The boxer rebellion essay

Names[ edit ] The extent of Taiping control in in red The terms used for the conflict and its participants often reflect the viewpoint of the writer. In modern Chinese the war is often referred to as the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Movement, reflecting both a Nationalist and a Communist point of view that the Taiping represented a popular ideological movement of either Han nationalism or proto-communist values.

The scholar Jian Youwen is among those who refer to the rebellion as the "Taiping Revolutionary Movement" on the grounds that it worked towards a complete change in the political and social system rather than towards the replacement of one dynasty with another.

They argue, instead, that the conflict should be called a "civil war". In English, the Heavenly Kingdom of Peace has often been shortened to simply the Taipings, from the word "Peace" in the Heavenly Kingdom of Peace, but this was never a term which either the Taipings or their enemies used to refer to them.

Origins[ edit ] Qing-dynasty China in the early to midth century suffered a series of natural disasters, economic problems and defeats at the hands of the Western powersin particular the humiliating defeat in by the British Empire in the First Opium War.

Meanwhile, Christianity was beginning to make inroads in China. In early Januaryafter a small-scale battle resulted in a victory in late Decembera 10,strong rebel army organized by Feng Yunshan and Wei The boxer rebellion essay routed Qing forces stationed in Jintian present-day GuipingGuangxi.

Taiping forces successfully repulsed an attempted imperial reprisal against the Jintian Uprising.

MLA Format Guide to help you create your MLA citations for all sources. Learn how to cite a website, cite a book, cite a journal and many others. This is an article taken from our China in Focus magazine () written by Justin Crozier.. Justin Crozier examines how China's Imperial examination system and its modern remnant - the Eight Legged Essay and the Gao Kao - are unique attempts in world history to aim for a government of wisdom. Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.

The Taiping army pressed north into Hunan following the Xiang Riverbesieging Changshaoccupying Yuezhouand then capturing Wuchang in December after reaching the Yangtze River.

At this point the Taiping leadership decided to move east along the Yangtze River. Anqing was captured in February In Taiping forces captured Nanjingmaking it their capital and renaming it Tianjing "Heavenly Capital".

Since the Taipings considered the Manchus to be demons, they first killed all the Manchu men, then forced the Manchu women outside the city and burned them to death.

He lived in luxury and had many women in his inner chamber, and often issued religious strictures. He clashed with Yang Xiuqing, who challenged his often impractical policies, and became suspicious of Yang's ambitions, his extensive network of spies and his claims of authority when "speaking as God.

But fearing for his life, he departed from Tianjing and headed towards westwards Sichuan.

The Imperial Examination

With Hong withdrawn from view and Yang out of the picture, remaining Taiping leaders[ who? The Europeans decided to stay officially neutral, though European military advisors served with the Qing army.

Inside China, the rebellion faced resistance from the traditionalist rural classes because of hostility to Chinese customs and Confucian values. The landowning upper class, unsettled by the Taiping ideology and the policy of strict separation of the sexeseven for married couples, sided with government forces and their Western allies.

In December Qing forces retook Wuchang for the final time. This army would become known as the " Ever Victorious Army ", a seasoned and well trained Qing military force commanded by Charles George Gordonand would be instrumental in the defeat of the Taiping rebels.

Inaround the time of the death of the Xianfeng Emperor and ascension Tongzhi EmperorZeng Guofan's Xiang Army captured Anqing with help from a British naval blockade on the city. Ningbo is easily captured in December 9th, and Hangzhou is besieged and finally captured on December 31st, Taiping troops surround Shanghai in January,but with the return of British and French troops from to the city returning from Northern China.

The Ever-Victorious Army repulsed another attack on Shanghai in and helped to defend other treaty ports such as Ningboreclaimed on May They also aided imperial troops in reconquering Taiping strongholds along the Yangtze River.

In Shi Dakai surrendered to the Qing near the Sichuan capital Chengdu and was executed by slow-slicing.

The boxer rebellion essay

Qing forces were reorganised under the command of Zeng GuofanZuo Zongtang and Li Hongzhangand the Qing reconquest began in earnest. He was sick for 20 days before succumbing and a few days after his death, Qing forces took the city.

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His body was buried in the former Ming Imperial Palaceand was later exhumed on orders of Zeng Guofan to verify his death, and then cremated. Hong's ashes were later blasted out of a cannon in order to ensure that his remains have no resting place as eternal punishment for the uprising.The Upper Canada Rebellion was an insurrection against the oligarchic government of the British colony of Upper Canada (present-day Ontario) in December While public grievances had existed for years, it was the rebellion in Lower Canada (present-day Quebec) that emboldened rebels in Upper Canada to openly revolt soon Upper Canada Rebellion was largely defeated shortly after it.

(This essay is excerpted and modified from Teaching About Women in China and Japan, by Lyn Reese, found in Social Education, NCSS, March ) (the Ch’ien T’ao poem is from Kenneth Rexroth & Ling Chung, Women Poets of China, New Directions Book, ).

Any basic inquiry into the understanding of the “Chinese Revolution” would spark an open debate to a controversial string of complex events, namely the Opium Wars, the Taiping Rebellion, the Boxer Rebellion, the Xinhai Revolution, the Chinese Revolution of and lastly the Cultural Revolution.

A+ Student Essay. How do the pigs maintain their authority on Animal Farm? George Orwell’s Animal Farm examines the insidious ways in which public officials can abuse their power, as it depicts a society in which democracy dissolves into autocracy and finally into the Rebellion onward, the pigs of Animal Farm use violence and the threat of violence to control the other.

The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from to between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan..

The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom was an oppositional state based in Tianjing (present-day Nanjing) with a Christian . Mar 08,  · From SZA and Charli XCX to Gucci Mane and Jake Paul, 25 writers — John Jeremiah Sullivan, Angela Flournoy, Hanif Abdurraqib and more — tell us what’s happening to pop.

SparkNotes: Animal Farm: A+ Student Essay